Varicose veins are enlarged and tortuous veins, most commonly in the leg but may be found elsewhere. There are two, superficial and deep, venous systems in our leg. The blood from the superficial veins is drained into the deep veins by a network of one-way valves. Deep veins are the high-pressure system being within muscles, which pump the blood heart wards. Varicose veins have a strong female preponderance.
Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) are defined as the structural, functional or positional abnormality of the heart, in isolation or in combination present from birth, but may manifest any time after birth or may not manifest at all. Some of these may be discovered later. These are primarily seen in newborn, and children; although in our country it is not uncommon to see adults with uncorrected CHD. The burden of congenital heart disease in India is likely to be enormous, due to a very high birth rate. This heavy burden emphasizes the importance of this group of heart diseases.
Truncus arteriosus otherwise known as Persistent truncus arteriosus, is a kind of congenital heart disease that is not a frequent occurence. Here, the Truncus Arteriosus is not forked properly into the aorta and pulmonary artery, resulting into the presence of a single large artery instead. Hence, this single artery has to perform dual functions of carrying blood both to the body as well as the lungs.